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Condemner or Condemned

13 Oct

If you ever visit IH Dubai in the afternoon, there’s a good chance you’ll stumble into a round of ‘Guess that Collocation’.  Someone shouts out a random word, everyone guesses the most common collocation, and then we check the COCA or BNC corpus.  What can I say, we really know how to party.

Anyways, one day someone picked condemn. I think the best guess was violence which came in at about #5, but what was really surprising came a little further down the list: homosexual at #23 and homosexuality at #35.  So, when it came time to write a paper for the lexis module of my MSc, I decided to do a little more investigating.  I won’t bore you with research methods or tables of corpus search results[1], but here are a few trends that I found interesting:

 

PolFinger wagitics

Politicians love to condemn.  Condemn other parties, condemn other governments, condemn the terrorists – if someone/something needs condemning, they’re the ones to turn to.  And if it’s not them condemning, it’s the media reporting the politicians.  Just take a look at some of the top collocates:

–          War: attack, bombing, violence, terrorism

–          Politics: resolution, motion, Clinton, government

–          Other nations: Israel, Palestine, Iran, Iraq

 

Religion

Of course, if you really want some good ol’ fashioned moral judgment, nothing beats religion.  In fact, the two sub-genres where condemn occurred most frequently were religious magazines for the US and sermons for the UK.  Not surprisingly, there were a number of obvious religious collocates, including church, bible, and cleric to the left of the verb, and homosexuality and suicide to the immediate right.  What I found most fascinating was that these common collocates only occurred in the COCA corpus and not in the BNC.  This raises a number of questions:

Do Americans condemn more for religious reasons than the British?

Do American politicians incorporate more religion into their political platforms?  If so, is it mostly the right wing?

Does the American media merely report this or do they actively condemn as well?

Is the anti-gay movement really that strong in the US or is it just rhetoric from both sides on the issue of homosexuality?

Although I try to put forward my own hypotheses in my paper, I think I’ll just leave the questions here for others to mull over.  Interestingly as well, even the Webster dictionary (US) includes the term ‘moral judgment’ in its primary definition while Collins (UK) only talks about disapproval and censure.

 

Condemner or Condemned

As seen, whether the collocate search is for words to the left or right of the Condemn makes a huge impact on the results.  On the left, we can see agents who are doing the condemning, typically depersonalized entities, the law, the government, the bible, the UN, etc.  It seems that usually when someone wants to condemn somebody else, it’s better to hide behind the moral weight of a faceless powerful force.  Even when this isn’t the case, the passive voice is also often used – apparently personally condemning is distasteful!

 

Overall, I have to admit – I didn’t actually enjoy doing corpus research and may leave this particular field to other more qualified and enthusiastic people.  What I do find fascinating are the trends that emerge from this kind of work and I’ll definitely be continuing to read others’ papers.  If you come across anything similar, please do let me know and post a link.


[1] If anyone has a perverse desire to see the whole paper, just send me a private message.

Friends, Romans, Kabayan…

25 Feb

I haven’t been blogging this year, but couldn’t resist when I saw this billboard in my metro station.  Can you guess what country this is in?  Who it’s written for?  What language it is? (Okay maybe the last one isn’t that tricky…)

Kabayan

If you do recognize this ad, then maybe you’ve recently been in the Dubai Marina metro station in the UAE.  And if you understood all the lexis in this ad, then you’re probably Filipino or familiar with the culture.  It turns out  that Kabayan is a Filipino term for countryman and adobo is the name of a popular Filipino dish (thanks Google).Adobo

So why did this ad make such an impression on me?

I suppose it’s because of the endless discussion and debate in ELT concerning English as a Lingua Franca, who English belongs to, what English we should be teaching, etc.  Outside of ELT, variations of this debate can be seen too, as evidenced by this recent article in the Guardian which came out about Singlish (English from Singapore).

Now, I don’t pretend to have any answers, or even particularly strong feelings on the subject, but it does seem to me that this ad does say a lot about the current state of world English.  After all,

  • it is written in English
  • it includes lexis for a specific non-native English speech community (Filipinos)
  • it is posted in a prominent spot, in an Arabic-speaking country in the Middle East

I’m not sure who English belongs to, but it certainly isn’t me (and that’s just the way I like it).

Random Spanish vocab at its finest

4 Nov

Here’s a serious linguistic test: take a look at my new Spanish vocab and try to guess what we’ve been studying in my weekly class (all bad translations are my own):

• Pezuña – a hoof

• El colmo de la chineazon n– ‘the pinnacle of being spoiled (pretty sure this is Costa Rica specific)

• De según como se mire – It depends how you look at it

• No es tanto que… sino que… – It’s not so much… as it is…

• Empedernido – something like ‘hard-line’ (adj.)

• Yo discrepo – I disagree (formal)

• Meter la cuchara – Get involved in somebody else’s business (another Ticoismo I think)

• Caballo de Troya – Trojan horse

If you guessed it was an exam prep class focusing on the environment and deforestation in Spain, then well done!

I guess what strikes me here, looking back at my notes, is that students really do learn what the want to learn and not what the teacher sets out to teach. Luckily in my case I take the class with my friend Chris who shares similar views on language learning and with my teacher Fernando who has been receptive to ideas regarding using emergent language.

In the past though, I’ve had classes were the teacher was insistent on presenting and practicing certain structures (usually involving the subjunctive!). In these cases I dutifully did what was asked of me, dropped out of the class, and then learnt some new vocab from my wife, the taxi driver, my bandmates, etc.

As normally happens, reflecting on my Spanish classes gets me to thinking about my own teaching practices and those of the staff here at the school. If I find the set material so dull, surely they do too? And while I know a number of the teachers are creative and open to emergent language and the students’ immediate needs, I’m also equally sure that there are a number of teachers who follow the coursebook from unit 1 to unit 12 without deviation. I shudder to think…